In the Middle Ages, Luke emerges as the patron saint of artists and painters. A 14th century writer, Nicephoros Kallistos, attributed to a 6th century Byzantine, Theodoros Anagnostes, the memory that “an image of the Mother of God [was] painted … Continue reading
Here is a following excerpt from Irenaeus on the four canonical Gospels.
We have learned the plan of our salvation from no one else than the ones through whom the gospel has come down to use. At first, they proclaimed it in public, but later on, in accordance with Go’d will, they handed it down to us in the Scriptures, to be the ground and pillar of our faith. It is unlawful to assert that they preached before they possessed ‘complete knowledge’, as the heretics dare to say, who boast that they have improved on the apostles. After our Lord rose from the dead, the apostles received power from on high when the Holy Spirit came down upon them, were filled with all gifts, and thus received complete knowledge. They departed to the ends of the earth, preaching the glad tidings of the good things sent from God to us, and proclaiming the peace of heaven toward humankind. They all equally and individually possessed the gospel of God. Matthew produced a written gospel for the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, laying the foundations of the church there. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, handed down to us in writing what Peter had preached. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the gospel Paul preached. Afterwards, John, the disciple of the Lord, who had leaned upon his breast, also published a gospel while he was living at Ephesus. (Against Heresies, 3.1.1)
Here are some thoughts on the composition of the Gospels according to Irenaeus.
- Matthew’s Gospel is originally composed in Hebrew
- Mark wrote his gospel after Peter and Paul left Rome
- Mark composed Peter’s preaching (Mark 1.1?)
- Luke composed the “gospel Paul preached”
- John wrote his Gospel while in Ephesus